Works Description


The title(s) of the work are encoded in <titleStmt>:

         <title xml:lang="gez" xml:id="t1">መጽሐፈ፡ ቅዳሴ፡</title>
         <title xml:lang="gez" corresp="#t1" type="normalized">Maṣḥafa qǝddāse</title>
         <title xml:lang="en" corresp="#t1">Book of the Consecration</title>
         <title xml:lang="en" xml:id="t2">Missal</title>
         <title xml:lang="en" xml:id="t3">Book of Liturgy</title>
         <editor role="generalEditor" key="AB"></editor>
         <funder>Akademie der Wissenschaften in Hamburg</funder>

Example 1

In general, the normalized version of the Gǝʿz is the one printed on the app to refer to a work. If another title should be printed, because it is the standard title used when referring to this work, you can also use @type with value main to signal the title which is to be used for labels, pointers and headers.

The title which will be printed on the website will therefore be, in order of priority

  1. <title[@type = 'main'][@corresp = '#t1']>
  2. <title[@corresp = '#t1'][@xml:lang = 'am']>
  3. <title[@corresp = '#t1'][@xml:lang = 'gez']>
  4. <title[@corresp = '#t1'][@xml:lang = 'en']>
  5. <title[@corresp = '#t1']>
  6. < title[1]>
In the example above, therefore Maṣḥafa qǝddāse will be printed. Please be as careful in your encoding of titles as everywhere else to correctly encode the facts and not adapt them in order to achieve a certain visualization.

Titles of the same work in another tradition will be reported following the same rule and attributing an arbitrary t+digit @xml:id and the appropriate @xml:lang.

You can also use <title type='short'> for shortened titles like citation forms:

      <title xml:lang="gez" xml:id="t1">ወንጌል፡ ዘዮሐንስ፡</title>
      <title xml:lang="gez" corresp="#t1" type="normalized">Wangel za-Yoḥannǝs</title>
      <title xml:lang="en" corresp="#t1" type="main">Gospel of John</title>
      <title type="short">Jn.</title>

Example 2

If a subpart of a work, which does not circulate independently in the Ethiopic tradition, does circulate independently in other traditions, the relevant titles and references will be added in the appropriate <div type='textpart'>, not in <titleStmt>.


Please Note that we will encode AUTHORSHIP as a relation in the work record, to be more specific and explicit about the sort of authorship.

<relation name='dcterms:creator' active='LIT1608hoheta' passive='PRS4709Giyorgis'>

This means that the work has this author.

If a work is traditionally attributed to an author whose authorship is not currently considered to be historical, this can be expressed verbally with bibliographic references in the description of the relation, for example LIT1608hoheta:

<relation name='saws:isAttributedToAuthor' active='LIT1608hoheta' passive="PRS4709Giyorgis'>

<relation name='saws:isAttributedToAuthor' active='LIT1608hoheta' passive='PRS3709eleni'>

you can use many of this and also have different types for one work. If you come across records which use the author element, please correct them.

You might need to express concept which need more than one relation. For example if Person A is author of a translation B of a work C in Arabic, you will need a relation of authorship between A and B (A isAuthorOf B) and the relation stating the fact that B is a translation of C (B isLooseTranslationOf C). If a digital edition of the translated work exists, please use that as a value in the relation. If no such edition exist you might point to the ID of the title in the language of the original.

Clavis IDs

Inside <sourceDesc>, IDs of the work in different claves can be given in <listBibl type='clavis'>:

<listBibl type="clavis">
   <bibl corresp="#t2coptic" type="CC"><ptr target="bm:CC"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="CPG"><ptr target="bm:CPG1"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="BHO"><ptr target="bm:BHO"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="CANT"><ptr target="bm:CANT1"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="CAVT"><ptr target="bm:CAVT2"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="BHL"><ptr target="bm:BHL"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="syriaca"><ptr target="bm:syriaca"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>
   <bibl type="KRZ"><ptr target="bm:KRZ"></ptr><citedRange unit="item">123</citedRange></bibl>

Example 3

You cannot have both <p> and <listBibl> in <sourceDesc>, so if you also need paragraphs, add another <sourceDesc>.

Please use only the clavis IDs given in this example. If there is another clavis you would like to add to this list, please open an issue to discuss it. Other references to works in standardized lists, such as Chaîne's Répertoire or various publications listing the single Miracles of Mary can be given as a bibliographic reference in <listBibl>, while references to external sources such as the Umwelttexte by Corpus Coranicum can be given in a <relation> between the record and the external reference in <listRelation>, see below.


We use <witness> for those manuscripts which are actually used for the edition we are going to provide in the <div type='edition'>. All manuscript records containing the work are displayed in the app anyway.

         <witness corresp="BLorient818" xml:id="L"></witness>
         <witness corresp="BNFet146" xml:id="P"></witness>
         <witness corresp="ONBAeth4" xml:id="W"></witness>

Example 4

<listWit>s can be nested if needed, for example to group them in families. Each <witness> will have to take a @corresp pointing to the manuscript @xml:id. If the manuscript is in already described in Beta maṣāḥǝft, that is enough. If the manuscript is described in an external catalogue, then use <@type='external'> in <listBibl[type='mss']> in the manuscript entity. You can use @cert to specify a degree of certainty regarding the manuscript you are listing. Please, note that each witness element can take a fully marked up description in relation to the text.

As information provided by the catalogues we are working with should not be lost, whenever a catalogue description contains references to other manuscripts containing the same work, mini ms records containing the work ID should be created for those manuscripts. This assures that all the manuscripts containing the same work can be retrieved by the app while reserving <listWit> in the work records mainly for the manuscripts used for the edition.

Please note that the list of manuscripts containing a work shown in the application and the list of witnesses used for an edition are two different things. The first picks up whatever information is available, it might be less or more than we actually know at the moment depending on what has been marked up and linked. The <listWit> contains instead a statement about the manuscripts used for an edition, which can be nested, and also might contain manuscripts which we do not have yet.


Each relationship should be listed separately in a <relation>, even if the same relationship exists between this and more than one other entity. @name contains the name of the relation.

Usually, @active should contain the @xml:id of the current item. @passive should contain the ID of the related work, person or place. In <desc>, the relation can be described with a sentence or two:

   <relation name="saws:isAttributedToAuthor" active="LIT1925Mashaf#t2arabic" passive="PRS7509Nasralla">
      <desc>It is not clear whether <persName ref="PRS7509Nasralla"></persName>, who is otherwise unknown, is the compiler or author.
            <ptr target="bm:Pietruschka2005EAEFalasfa"></ptr>

Example 5

The relationship between a work and its subject is expressed in the person record:

<relation name="ecrm:P129i_is_subject_of" active="PRS4585Georgeo" passive="LIT1455GadlaG"></relation>

Example 6

External entries in databases or similar which concern a particular work can also be referenced in a <relation>. If, as in the case of the TUK IDs given by Corpus Coranicum, the external entry refers only to a part of a work, it is preferable to add the <relation> in the exact <div> of this textpart in our edition, using <relation name="skos:exactMatch">. If this is not possible, because we do not yet have the text of the work or because we follow different divisions than the other reference, <relation name="skos:broadMatch"> can be used at the most pertinent place of the record with the most precise pointer to our record possible in @passive, as for example in

      <relation name="skos:broadMatch" active="" passive="LIT1697Jubilees"></relation>

Example 7

and in :

      <div type="textpart" subtype="chapter" n="47">
         <ab>ወበውእቱ ፡ መዋዕል ፡ ዐርገት ፡ ጸሎተ ፡ ጻድቃን ፡ ወደመ ፡ ጻድቅ ፡ እምነ ፡ ምድር ፡ ቅድመ ፡ እግዚአ ፡ መናፍስት
            ። በእሉ ፡ መዋዕል ፡ የኀብሩ ፡ ቅዱሳን ፡ እለ ፡ ይነብሩ ፡ መልዕልተ ፡ ሰማያት ፡ በ፩ቃል ፡ ወያስተበቊዑ ፡ ወይጼልዩ
            ፡ ወይሴብሑ ፡ ወያአኲቱ ፡ ወይባርኩ ፡ ለስሙ ፡ ለእግዚአ ፡ መናፍስት ፡ በእንተ ፡ ደመ ፡ ጻድቃን ፡ ዘተክዕወ ፡
            ወጸሎቶሙ ፡ ለጻድቃን ፡ ከመ ፡ ኢትፀራእ ፡ በቅድመ ፡ እግዚአ ፡ መናፍስት ፡ ከመ ፡ ይትገበር ፡ ሎሙ ፡ ኲነኔ ፡
            ወትዕግሥት ፡ ኢይኩን ፡ ሎሙ ፡ ለዓለም ። ወበእማንቱ ፡ መዋዕል ፡ ርኢክዎ ፡ ለርእሰ ፡ መዋዕል ፡ ሶበ ፡ ነበረ ፡
            በመንበረ ፡ ስብሐቲሁ ፡ ወመጻሕፍተ ፡ ሕያዋን ፡ በቅድሜሁ ፡ ተከሥቱ ፡ ወኲሉ ፡ ኀይሉ ፡ ዘመልዕልተ ፡ ሰማያት ፡ ወዐውደ
            ፡ ዚአሁ ፡ ይቀውሙ ፡ ቅድሜሁ ። ወልቦሙ ፡ ለቅዱሳን ፡ ትመልእ ፡ ፍሥሐ ፡ እስመ ፡ በጽሐ ፡ ኊልቋ ፡ ለጽድቅ ፡
            ወጸሎቶሙ ፡ ለጻድቃን ፡ ተሰምዐ ፡ ወደሙ ፡ ለጻድቅ ፡ በቅድመ ፡ እግዚአ ፡ መናፍስት ፡ ተፈቅደ ። </ab>
         <listRelation><relation name="skos:broadMatch" active="" passive="urn:dts:betmas:LIT1340EnochE:2.47"></relation>
            <relation name="skos:broadMatch" active="" passive="urn:dts:betmas:LIT1340EnochE:2.47"></relation></listRelation>

Example 8

Edition statement, Source statement, and encoding description

These elements should be provided in the header for texts that we provide edition for. The Edition statement should specify the origin of the text. The encoding description specifies the principles used when encoding, when known (e.g. transcription, specific tag sets, etc.)

<p>Digital text based on  <bibl><ptr target="bm:Marrassini1993AmdaSeyon"></ptr></bibl>.</p>

Example 9

<p>Text prepared within the framework of the TraCES project.</p>
   <p>The following errors
      in Marrassini edition have been corrected:



   <p>Original spelling and typography is retained.</p>



Example 10


Extent should be specified for the works wherever possible; obligatory for works with digital text provided, after the edition statement:

<p>Digital text based on  <bibl><ptr target="bm:Marrassini1993AmdaSeyon"></ptr></bibl>.</p>

<extent>10170  words</extent>

Example 11


If you have multiple recensions/version of a text, these can be linked with a <relation> with <name='saws:isVersionOf'> this will be used to pick up these in the text view. The same parallel content in the different versions should have the same @corresp to a NAR unit and there should always be a @resp in the <div[@type='edition']> containing this text part with multiple versions with either the initials of the editor or the pointer to the @xml:id of the bibl element which has a pointer to the edition.


For the date of creation of a work, use the element <creation> in <profileDesc> as in the following example

<creation when="1555-06-23" corresp="#Pdamot">23 Sane (17 June) 1555 in <placeName ref="LOC2488Damot" xml:id="Pdamot">Damot</placeName></creation>

Example 12

any other date relevant to the work elaboration or life could be added in a date element, possibly pointing to one of the placeNames in the file with a proper ID as in the example below.

<date when="1555-06-23" corresp="#Pdamot">23 Sane (17 June) 1555</date> in <placeName ref="LOC2488Damot" xml:id="Pdamot">Damot</placeName>

Example 13

It is important that the ID of the referred place starts with P because there are cases where @corresp is already used to point to another ID, e.g. a work in another tradition title. Look at this fictitious example, where I have entered a placeName with Q item ID from wikidata (Ethiopia) and assigned the second @corresp and the ID with P

<creation corresp="#t2arabic #Ptest" when="1238-09">
<placeName ref="Q115" xml:id="Ptest"></placeName>

Example 14

this sounds like a dirty hack to get it working... and it is!

Short Summary of Contents

To provide a short summary of contents use the element <abstract> in as in this example from Confessio Claudii

<p>A theological treatise believed to be a response of king <persName ref="PRS4428Galawdew">Galāwdewos</persName> to the Jesuit missionaries headed by <persName ref="PRS7691Oviedo">Oviedo</persName>.

Example 15

The abstract can also mention the total number of words, which might be then marked up with a <measure type='words'> within the <abstract>.

Summaries given in catalogues can be copied here and edited.

Revisions of this page

  • Dorothea Reule on 2018-04-26: editing of the Work section of the guidelines
  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki
  • Dorothea Reule on 2018-12-03: added paragraph on TUK IDs and relations with other databases