Standardisation of transcription from Encyclopaedia Aethiopica

  • all the above should be applied to transcriptions from ETHIOPIC only.

  • ä for first order should be changed into a

  • a for fourth order should be changed into ā

  • initial alef must be reinserted (ʾa, ʾo, ʾe, etc)

  • Monosyllabic prepositions must be hyphenated


  • A, a (at the beginning of a word, A/a vowel occurs only here) > ʾA / ʾĀ, ʾa / ʾā depending on the order (write ʾA/ʾa when unsure)

  • ʿA (or ʿa) > ʿA / ʿĀ (or ʿa / ʿā) depending on the order

  • Ha (or ha) > Ha / Hā(or ha / hā) depending on the order

  • Ḥa (or ḥa) > Ḥa / Ḥā (or ḥa / ḥā) depending on the order

  • Ḫa (or ḫa) > Ḫa / Ḫā (or ḫa / ḫā) depending on the order

This page is referred to in the following pages

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki