Named Entities

Throughout the document <placeName> and <persName> will take a @ref containing the <xml:id> of the place or person record:

            belongs to the manuscripts looted by the British <persName ref="PRS7484Napier">Napier</persName>
            expedition in <date>1868</date> from the church of <placeName ref="INS0101MadhaneAlam">Madḫāne ʿAlam</placeName>
            or was acquired by a member of the expedition between <placeName ref="LOC5534Sanafe"></placeName> and <placeName ref="LOC4547Maqdal"></placeName>

Example 1

Before creating new entities for PLACES like Stuttgart, Paris, London, etc. which unlike all repositories are very much unlikely to receive specific descriptions by this project, use external links to Wikidata IDs as follows.

            vicaire en la paroisse de <placeName ref="Q272084">Bourron</placeName>

Example 2

(same for placeName and region)

To decide whether to create a new place record or not if in doubt, see the page on creating new records.

The <title> in a <msItem> takes a @ref as well, pointing to the work ID, which will contain the standard edition of the text.

               <msItem xml:id="ms_i7">
                  <locus from="114v" to="118r"></locus>
                  <title type="complete" ref="LIT2444Temher"></title>
                  <textLang mainLang="gez"></textLang>

Example 3

Variant titles, translations of the title, etc. will be contained in the work record. They do not need to be all listed in the manuscript record.

In-text placeName and persName

Similarily, all information related to places or people should be stored in the respective place or person record:

Information about a place should be entered in the TEI record for that place following the guidelines for a Place entity.

Information about a person should be entered in the TEI record for that person following the guidelines for a Person entity. For the encoding of roles and titles of persons, both in the appropriate record and when referring to them, see roles and roleName.


Filenames and IDs should correspond EXACTLY and as always they are case sensitive. The main xml:id of a record is directly into the <TEI> root element.: <TEI xmlns="" xml:id="PRS1009Abakaraz">

Attested placeNames in a Work

The attestations of placeNames should be marked as in the example below

<ab> ምዕራፍ፡፱። ወእምዝ፡ ዓደወ፡ ማር፡ ገላውዴዎስ፡
ማዕዶተ፡ ክልኤቱ፡ አፍላግ፡ መንገለ፡ ምድረ፡
<placeName ref="LOC5597Sawa" notBefore="1540" notAfter="1559">ሼዋ፡</placeName>
<placeName ref="LOC5932Tegray" notBefore="1540" notAfter="1559">ትግራይ፡</placeName>
 ከመ፡ ይርአይ፡ መርዔቶ፡ bእለ፡ ህየ፡ በጽድቅ፡ ወይዋሄ፡ cሕዝቦ፡ በርትዕ። ወበጽሐ፡</ab>

Example 4

to choose which ID to use consider the following:

  • if it is a place of interest for Ethiopian studies or attested in Ethiopia, then use one of our internal IDs or create a new record if none is yet available

  • if it is an ancient place but not in Ethiopia, like Jordan, Rome, etc. then search pleaides and use a pleiades ID prefixed with pleaides: e.g. for Jordan River use plaeides:687932

  • if it is an ancient place not of our interest and not relevant for pleiades, check in wikidata and enter the item ID (starting with Q)

you can also add a @resp with the ID of one of our person records or editors and a @source with a pointer to the ID assigned to a <bibl> in the file as shown here .

This page is referred to in the following pages

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki
  • Dorothea Reule on 2018-05-18: Split dates