Bibliographic References


Different <listBibl> are used for separate types of entries. Within <listBibl type='editions'> each bibl will be an edition of this work.

References to the different manuscripts used for the editions can be done with a link directly to a <witness>'s or a <listWit>'s @xml:id like in LIT2317Senodo and LIT1709Kebran:

               <listBibl type="editions">
                     <ptr target="bm:Praetorius1870Fabula"></ptr>
                  <bibl corresp="#bnfet5 #bnfet146 #bdlbruce93 #bdlbruce87 #berlin395 #blor818 #blor819">
                     <ptr target="bm:Bezold1905KebraN"></ptr>

Example 1

When using @type translation encoders have sometimes also specified the language of the translation in a @xml:lang. This is not saying that actually, so there is no need to add that.

Secondary bibliographic references given in catalogues about a certain work can also be included here, as they do not belong to the manuscript description.


Bibliographic references are marked up by a <bibl> element containing at least a <ptr> element with a @target, as in the following example:

  <ptr target="bm:Villa2013Erma"></ptr>

Example 2

If you need to add an indication of exact reference, it should be given in a <citedRange> element, as in the following example:

  <ptr target="bm:Villa2014Erma"></ptr>
  <citedRange unit="page">5-13</citedRange>

Example 3

<citedRange> can take several values in @unit and can be repeated if there is a need to specify a volume, an entry, etc.

Please, do not use @from and @to in <citedRange> as this is unnecessary.

Please note that lists of references about a manuscript should be kept with the manuscript and bibliography about a text should be kept with the text, etc. No typed bibliography is entered in the record, only pointers to a common bibliographic database.

The target should be a uniquely assigned tag in the Zotero Group Bibliography EthioStudies. If the item you want to cite does not yet have a unique tag, please assign one with this format and using only latin alphabet letters


Please make sure this contains no special characters, only digits and latin characters. To check that this is unique, after saving the record in Zotero, click on the tag and check that only one item has this tag. If not, change the keyword of the tag just assigned.

When adding records to the Zotero Group Library, please follow the principles at this page.

You can use a @corresp to link a <bibl> element to a part of the file with an @xml:id.

  <bibl corresp="#t3arabic">
  <ptr target="bm:Enger1856Transitu"></ptr>

Example 4

The above example would point the bibliographical reference directly to the <title> with that ID.

                 <bibl corresp="#blorient481">
                    <ptr target="bm:Wright1877BM"></ptr>
                    <citedRange unit="page">2-4</citedRange>

Example 5

In this second example the @corresp points to a <witness> with @xml:id.

If you want to encode a bibliographic reference provided by a catalogue to a editions of a text and catalogue descriptions of manuscripts featuring the same work, please add bibliography to the work or manuscript in question directly.

This page is referred to in the following pages

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki