Zotero Bibliography Guidelines

Zotero data entry guidelines (valid for all HLCES projects)

General guidance on bibliography can be found here. This page is about entering data in the Zotero Group Library.

When adding titles to the EthioStudies Group bibliography please make sure you follow the rules:

  1. Make sure that the entry is not there already. And make sure that you choose the correct publication type (Journal article, Encyclopedia article, etc.). For papers in Conference proceedings - use "Book section" in Zotero, do not use "Conference paper" as the publication type as then you cannot enter series number and some other things in the mask.

  2. The titles must be quoted in full (not abbreviated), in the way they appear on the frontispiece. All diacritics must be preserved.

    1. Titles in English should use maximal capitalization (i.e. capitalize every words apart from articles and conjunctions), unless the title is not originally in upper case, then follow the capitalization as it appears on the book cover. Titles in languages other than English should use minimal capitalization (i.e. capitalize only the words which must be capitalized according to the rules of the language in question, e.g. nouns in German).

    2. The first word of subtitles should always be capitalized.

    3. The following punctuation should be used in titles:

      1. The punctuation of the original title must be preserved.

      2. A colon (:) should be used between the main title and a subtitle.

      3. If more subtitles are present, they should be divided by a comma and capitalized.

      4. Use a full stop between titles in different languages in publications with a double title. e.g.: Raineri, O. 1996. Santi e guerrieri a cavallo: Tele etiopiche, Tele di Qēs Adamu Tesfaw. Warriors Saints on Horseback: Ethiopian Paintings, Paintings by Qēs Adamu Tesfaw (Clusone: Ferrari Edizioni, 1996)

    4. For titles in Ethiopic provide the original in fidäl, the scientific transcription in brackets and the translation into English.

    5. For titles in scripts other than Ethiopic (Arabic, Cyrillic, etc.), provide the scientific transcription and translation only (i.e. not the title in the original script).

    6. The basis for transliteration of Cyrillic should be this table

      There are further rules to be followed:

      Pre-reform spelling (before 1918) of proper names should be standardazied according to modern spelling. Thus, not Bolotov" (Болотовъ), but Bolotov (Болотов).

      Pre-reform spelling (before 1918) of titles is tranliterated according to the pre-reform spelling, without standardization. Thus, for example 'Описанiе двухъ эѳиопскихъ рукописей, пожертвованныхъ въ библiотеку Спб. Дух. Академiи преосвященнымъ Анатолiемъ, епископомъ балтскимъ (нынѣ острогожскимъ)' should be transliterated as 'Opisanie dvuch" rukopisej, požertvovannych" v" biblioteku Spb. Duch. Akademii preosvjaščennym" Anatoliem", episkopom" baltskim" (nyně ostrogožskim")'.

    7. A translation in English is necessary for titles in any language apart from the three in which Aethiopica accepts publications (Italian, French and German).

    8. Pay attention not to incorporate in the title elements that do not belong to it, e.g. information such as ‘edited and translated by’.

    9. Journal names are quoted using only the 'main' name, i.e. Aethiopica, not Aethiopica. International Journal of Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies.

  3. The names of all authors, editors and translators must be provided - in full and as they appear on the book. Make sure that you enter editors as editors and authors as authors, not e.g. editors as authors in the mask.

    NOTE: Because of the HLCE style, if the SAME person is editor, author and translator you need to insert their name in the Zotero mask under EACH of their roles, otherwise the record will not appear correctly once extracted. For instance: Colin, G. 1986. Le Synaxaire éthiopien, Mois de maskaram, ed., tr. G. Colin, Patrologia Orientalis, 43/3 (195) (Turnhout: Brepols, 1986). In Zotero, Colin's name needs to be inserted in the fields: author, editor and translator.

  4. For the names of the authors/editors, Zotero has the option to choose between the “Surname, First name” and simply “Name” (one field) form. Make sure that you use 2 fields for occidental names, and the 1-field mode for oriental (Ethiopian) names. You can switch between the options clicking on the field to the right of the name.

    1. If the name of the authors is not given and not known, use Anon. instead of the author's name.

    2. If the name of the authors is not given on the publication but is known through other sources, the name may be given in square brackets.

    3. Author's names in Zotero should be given in full as they appear on the publication, but if the full first name is not available please provide the initials as given on the book with full points AND divided by a space (e.g. 'Mudimbe, V. Y.' and NOT 'Mudimbe, V Y' OR 'Mudimbe, V.Y.' Titular prefixes (Sir, Revd, Dr, Captain, etc.) are not needed unless their removal would mislead the reader.

    4. In case if the transliterated form of a contributor's name in the publication differs from the transliterated form according to the rules applied by the project, enter the standardized form in accordance with into the corresponding field. In addition to that, ALWAYS provide in a child note for this specific entry (see, ) the actual spelling of a contributor's name, as it appears in the publication.

    NOTE: The name of the person(s) appearing on the book should be treated consistently with what was the author's and publisher's intention: a person should be marked as an editor or a translator only if this is explicitly written on the book cover and not because the text is in our opinion an edition.

  5. In a multi-volume publication, each volume is a separate entry, DO NOT merge volumes in one entry. Same is valid for article series. Each separately printed piece is a separate Zotero entry. Each volume gets a SEPARATE TAG.

  6. Each discrete printed entity that potentially may be quotable separately is a separate Zotero entry. Meaning a collection (Festschrift, Conference proceedings etc etc) get separate entries as "Books", and each article in the collection gets its own entry as "Book section". In electronic publications, both the book and each chapter get independent DOIs.

  7. Same applies to articles consisting of sub-articles written by different authors: the group article is an entry, but also each sub-article by a different author is an entry of its own.

  8. In case of multiple reprints: always provide and primarily quote the first version. Note that e.g. with CSCO the older series volumes are not printed with Peeters in Louvain, and have different series numbers – the original series numbers (Ser. II, **), publication place (most often Parisiis), publisher and year must be provided. All later reprints (Louvain, in the 1960s, with the usual CSCO/SAe numbers) are separate, additional, Zotero entries.

  9. If you import citations from an online source (e.g. worldcat.org or JSTOR) make sure that they are correctly imported and complete, Never import from specific library catalogues as you may inherit too many mistakes and you risk to import a compilation created only in that specific library and actually not existing elsewhere. Do not import any library-specific data like shelfmarks, buildings, etc.

  10. Always provide the series (full title) and the series number when they exist. For series+subseries combinations, the subseries has to go with the series number (e.g. Series: Corpus Scriptorium Christianorum Orientalium, Series Number: 552, Scriptores Aethiopici, 101).

  11. Always provide the place of the publisher – in the FORM THEY APPEAR ON THE COVER – i.e. for old books e.g. “Lugduni Batavorum” and NOT “Leiden”

    1. When no place of publication is given, use n.p. instead (it means 'no place')

    2. Abbreviations in city’s and states name are written without full point and without space in British English, e.g. Washington DC not Washington D.C. or Washington D. C. or Washington, DC USA not U.S.A or U. S. A.

  12. Always provide the publisher in the form he appears on the cover (e.g. “Ex officina Danielis & Abrahami à Gaesbeeck” and not simply “Daniel & Abraham” as modern catalogues may list)

    1. If the name of the publisher is in another script, e.g. fidäl or Arabic, provide the name using the scientific transcription and not the name in the original script or an English translation (e.g. Täsfa Gäbrä Śǝllase mattämiya bet and NOT በተስፋ ገብረ ሥላሴ ማተሚያ ቤት or Täsfa Gäbrä Śǝllase Press).

    2. If the name of the publisher is not given on the publication, use n.pub. instead (it means 'no publisher')

  13. If the publication date is not given, please use n.d. (no date).

  14. Most books can be found in HLCES/AAI/Stabi – check the physical books. Some older books can be found on Googlebooks and/or Archives, and articles on JSTOR and other repositories. In cases when the publication is available online add URL/DOI in Zotero mask.

  15. For related publications (translations, reprints, etc): you can establish relations with Zotero.

  16. Use Roman numbers for specific volume number for "Books" and Arabic numbers for volumes/issues for Journals. Filling out the "# of Volume" field is not requested, if you fill it out use Arabic number. Also "# of pages".

  17. In case of 2nd/3rd etc edition: use the "Edition" field, write in English only in this field, also for the books in other languages (i.e. if the book says "Zweite Auflage" you write "2nd edition).

  18. Manuscripts should be cited by city (in English), library (name in the original language), collection (in the original language), shelfmark. Examples: Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, B. 21 inf Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, MS 117

  19. Do not use any abbreviations for journals, series, libraries, etc.

  20. If the publisher cites more cities of publication, these can be included in the bibliographic record separated by an n rule, e.g. 'Urbana–Chicago: University of Illinois Press'

  21. If there are more than one publisher involved and operating in the same city, then the publishers’ name should be divided by an n rule, e.g. 'Addis Ababa: CFEE–Institute of Ethiopian Studies'.

  22. If more publishers and more places of publication are involved, these are separated by , (comma). E.g. 'London: James Currey, Athens: Ohio University Press, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University Press'.

  23. When the printing year on the book is expressed in a non-Common Era calendar, then both years should be recorded: for instance, for a book published in Ethiopia in 1982 EC = 1989/1990 CE write in the field date '1989/1990' and in extra '1982 EC'

    1. Please note that Zotero extraction of this type of records is not perfect, but the bibliography tool will fix this for you.

    2. The abbreviations to be used are EC for Ethiopian Calendar and H for Hegira.

  24. For bibliographic records in which the editorial and publishing years are different, the editorial year is used as the point of reference, as easier to define. E.g. Löfgren, O. 1962. ‘Äthiopische Wandamulette’, Orientalia Suecana, 11 (1962, pub. 1963), 95–120. Both sets of information need to be input in Zotero, with the editorial year (1962) given under 'Date' and the publishing year given under 'Extra' as 'pub. 1963'.

  25. If you have a date across two years like 2011-2012, please enter it both in the date filed as is and in extra with the following syntax: "issued: 2011/2012" This will ensure that both results printed with the HLZ styles from standalone and API will be correct.

  26. Do not forget to test via the "export" function that the titles appear the way you would want to see them in a publishable bibliography. For quoting in publications of the HLCES: use the Hiob Ludolf Centre for Ethiopian Studies style provided in Zotero repository (https://www.zotero.org/styles?q=hiob%20) – when you export your bibliography with this style make sure it corresponds to the appearance foreseen by the guidelines (e.g. here: https://www.aai.uni-hamburg.de/en/comst/publications/bulletin.html) - if not, maybe something is entered wrongly.

  27. NB: when creating tags note that these may be only ASCII alphanumeric combinations, do not use diacritical symbols (umlauts etc.)

  28. superscripts and subscripts should use <sup> and <sub>, as described here. https://www.zotero.org/support/kb/rich_text_bibliography these can be used also for cases in which the title contains formatting

  29. EACH Encyclopaedia entry must have volume and short title indicated if you want to get the correct citation style for Aethiopica. eg. ‘Mikaʾel Sǝḥul’, EAe, III (2007), 962b–964b (J. Abbink)

  30. Do not upload PDFs in the group bibliography. If they are necessary to substantiate your bibliographic entry, then please add a note to explain what is in the pdf which provides evidence for the decisions taken in entering the data in the record and perhaps inform on the PDF availability.

  31. If your entry is to be used in BetaMasaheft or Dillmann Online, then you need to add a tag with this format and using only latin alphabet letters


    Please make sure this contains no special characters, umlaut, underdots and other combining diacritics, only digits and latin characters. To check that this is unique, after saving the record in Zotero, click on the tag and check that only one item has this tag. If not, change the keyword of the tag just assigned.

    Please do not change existing tags, as they probably already have been used in Beta maṣāḥǝft or Dillmann. Small inconsistencies and typos in tags can be ignored. Adjusting their cosmetics to feet your taste is only going to harm.

    In case double bm: tags have been assigned, please proceede immediately to check which one is actually in use. Update the occurrences of the minority attestation and remove the unneeded tag.

    In case of double entries each with a bm: tag, the guidelines have not been followed for the one created the latest. You are welcome to blame them and move to the author of the mistake the need to immediately clean the Zotero database from the wrongly created record AND update all occurrences of the tag assigned to it with the correct tag of the correct entry.

    Please always be very careful. If you think it is a double but you are not sure, ASK. For example sometimes two records seem the same but they are not as for instance the publisher is different. In that case they are not double records and should not be removed.

    To check the occurrences of a tab you can use the search by zotero tag in the BM and Dillmann applications.

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki