Please read the content at the following links before starting:

  1. Pleiades Conceptual Overview
  2. an overview of our current work can be found here

The information contained in this page is valid both for the encoding of place and repository records, see also Place or Repository.

This example record contains information about a single place, at whatever granularity. It is thus important to state relationships with other places and typologies when possible , using <relation> and @sameAs.

Place records can be expanded with much more information, following the TEI guidelines for the element place.

            <place type="RegionalState" sameAs="Q200127">
               <placeName xml:id="n1" xml:lang="am">ብሔራዊ፡ ክልላዊ፡ መንግሥቲ፡ ትግራይ፡</placeName>
               <placeName corresp="#n1" xml:lang="am" type="normalized">Bǝḥerāwi Kǝllǝlāwi Mangǝśti
               <placeName corresp="#n1" xml:lang="en">Tǝgrāy National Regional State</placeName>
               <placeName xml:id="n2" xml:lang="ti" type="alt">ትግራይ፡</placeName>
               <placeName corresp="#n2" xml:lang="ti" type="normalized">Tǝgrāy</placeName>
               <placeName xml:id="n3" xml:lang="am" type="alt">ትግሬ፡</placeName>
               <placeName corresp="#n3" xml:lang="am" type="normalized">Tǝgre</placeName>
               <state type="existence" notBefore="1991"></state>
               <country ref="LOC3010Ethiop"></country>
               <location source="#Smidt">
                  <geo>14.1666 38.8333</geo>
                  <height>1975 m</height>
               <listBibl type="secondary">
                  <bibl xml:id="Smidt">
                     <ptr target="bm:Smidt2010EnAeTegray"></ptr>
                     <ptr target="bm:MantelNiecko2003EnAeAdministrative"></ptr>
                  <date type="foundation" notBefore="1991">1991</date>
                  <ab type="history">Tǝgrāy National Regional State was created in 1991 following a
                     radical reshaping of the historical Tǝgrāy province and the merger of diverse
                     historical northern provinces.</ab>
                  <ab type="description">Tǝgrāy borders with <placeName ref="LOC2991Eritre">Eritrea</placeName> to the north, <placeName ref="Q1049">Sudan</placeName> to the west, <placeName ref="LOC1426Amhara">ʾAmhārā</placeName> kǝllǝl to the south and <placeName ref="LOC1274Afar">ʿAfār</placeName> kǝllǝl to the east. Its national language is <persName ref="ETH2126Tegren">Tǝgrǝññā</persName> and its capital is <placeName ref="LOC4545Maqala">Maqala</placeName>. Although the state was originally
                     divided into four zones, in <date cert="medium">2005</date> these were
                     increased to six: <placeName ref="LOC6583WestTegray">Western Tǝgrāy
                        Zone</placeName>, <placeName ref="LOC6653EastTegray">Eastern Tǝgrāy
                           Zone</placeName>, <placeName ref="LOC6654CentralTegray">Central Tǝgrāy
                              Zone</placeName>, <placeName ref="LOC6655SudTegray">Southern Tǝgrāy
                                 Zone</placeName>, <placeName ref="LOC6656NWTegray">North-Western Tǝgrāy
                                    Zone</placeName>, <placeName ref="LOC6657SETegray">South-Eastern Tǝgrāy
                                       Zone</placeName>. Tǝgrāy presents a rich cultural heritage consisting of
                     churches, monasteries and other religious places, both Christian and Islamic:
                     manuscript collections; land charters; inscriptions; etc. </ab>

Example 1

New records

Before creating new entities for PLACES like Stuttgart, Paris, London, etc. which unlike all repositories are very much unlikely to receive specific descriptions by this project, use external links to Wikidata IDs as follows.

              <place type="city" sameAs="Q649">
              <placeName xml:id="n1" xml:lang="ru">Москва</placeName>
              <placeName corresp="#n1" xml:lang="en">Moscow</placeName>
              <country ref="Q159"></country>
              <region ref="Q649"></region>

Example 2

(same for <placeName> and <region>)


Use @sameAs inside <place> to declare the authority file. Prefer Wikidata if an item is present, otherwise use geonames.

               <place type="region" sameAs="Q2894614">
                  <placeName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">ወገራ፡</placeName>
                  <placeName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n1" type="normalized">Wagarā</placeName>

Example 3

GN ID number should use a prefix "gn:".

@type contains a value from the controlled list of Qualifiers .


Coordinates are used to display the place on a map and can be obtained from openstreetmap for example, adding a pointer for a place there.

Coordinates must provide latitude longitude and be separated only by one white space.

 <geo>14.308833 39.378683</geo>

Example 4

For regions, areas, and all polygons, use <geo rend='polygon'> using one line for each point. Please do not add spaces at the beginning and end of the series. You can draw your polygon with this tool and copy paste directly from there. Please take care to remove the commas.


                  <geo rend="polygon">38.40271 12.9804713
                     38.2626343 13.0580747
                     38.1170654 13.1463524
                     37.9138184 13.1543761
                     37.7737427 13.0901794
                     37.7160645 12.9885004
                     37.6858521 12.8707149
                     37.5979614 12.7421585
                     37.6446533 12.6483782
                     37.6693726 12.5438397
                     37.7380371 12.3909763
                     37.8506470 12.3426849
                     37.9934692 12.2460756
                     38.1692505 12.2111802
                     38.4439087 12.2809664
                     38.4521484 12.6162171
                     38.4851074 12.7796608
                     38.4082031 12.9831477
                     38.40271 12.9804713</geo>

Example 5

Administrative location

If you want to give other administrative location information, use <settlement>. Add one settlement for each set of information, but only one if there is only one set. Please do not remove text if it is there, simply mark it up as in the following example.

               <settlement type="province" ref="LOC5932Tegray"></settlement>
               <settlement when="2009-11-16" ref="LOC1564ASbiW" type="warada"></settlement>
               <settlement when="2009-11-16" ref="LOC6526Asir" type="qushat"></settlement>

Example 6

Place Names

A full example of how to encode the various possible placeNames is the following:

<placeName xml:id="n1" xml:lang="am">አክሱም፡ ጽዮን፡</placeName>
<placeName corresp="#n1" xml:lang="am" type="normalized">ʾAksum Ṣǝyon</placeName>
<placeName xml:id="n2" xml:lang="gez" type="alt">ማርያም፡ ጽዮን፡</placeName>
<placeName corresp="#n2" xml:lang="gez" type="normalized">Māryām Ṣǝyon</placeName>
<placeName corresp="#n2" xml:lang="en">Mary of Zion</placeName>
<placeName xml:id="n3" xml:lang="gez" type="alt">ገበዘ፡ ጽዮን፡</placeName>
<placeName corresp="#n3" xml:lang="gez" type="normalized">Gabaza Ṣǝyon</placeName>
<country ref="LOC3010Ethiop"></country>
<region notBefore="1991" type="RegionalState" ref="LOC5932Tegray"></region>
<region notAfter="1974" type="Province" ref="LOC6556Tegre"></region>

Example 7

All <placeName>s can take an @xml:id if it is needed for referencing, following the above example. i.e. nothing prevents Mary of Zion to have a @xml:id='n5' AND @corresp='#n2'

You can enter into <placeName> a <note> element where to describe the denomination more in detail, see for example ʾAdulis

<placeName xml:id="n4" xml:lang="la" type="alt" source="#FattovichMunro">Adulitae
                     <note source="#Smith"><ref cRef="">Ptolemy 4.7.8</ref></note><note source="#Epiphanius">
                     Epiphanius (listing nine kingdoms of the &apos;Indians&apos;, he refers to the Adulites
                     other then to the Aksumites)</note></placeName>
               <placeName xml:id="n5" type="alt" source="#FattovichMunro">WDTT <note source="#FattovichMunro">The geographical lists of the Egyptian 18th
                     dynasty (<date when="-1450" precision="low">ca. 1450

Example 8

use this especially if you need to provide specific @sources for this name of the place.

On referring to places, please look carefully for available records. e.g.:

  1. LOC6569Tegray (Tǝgrāy historical province) vs LOC5932Tegray (contemporary regional state)
  2. LOC6568Amhara (ʾAmhārā historical province) vs LOC1426Amhara (contemporary regional state)
  3. LOC3577Gondar (Gondar town) vs LOC6554GondarineK (Gondarine Kingdom)


For tābots please use an <ab type='tabot’> including the number of the tābots in a <measure> and <persNames type='tabot'> for each of the dedicatory persons. Avoid using @type for other persons mentioned in the texts.

<ab type="tabot">
   <measure quantity="4"></measure>
   Tābots of <persName ref="PRS3249Cyriacus" type="tabot">Qirqos</persName>, <persName ref="PRS9684Uriel" type="tabot">Urael</persName>, <persName ref="PRS6819Mary" type="tabot">Mary</persName>, <persName ref="PRS10777Madhane" type="tabot">Madḫane ʿĀlam</persName>

Example 9

If a tābot is dedicated to an inanimate entity, use a <ref> with appropriate type to point to a relevant ID, as in

              <ref type="authFile" corresp="Masqal">Cross</ref>

Example 10

Syriaca Historical Geography schema alignment

To encode historical places we follow in the above and what follows the TEI manual for Historical Geography, with some divergences due to our project.

  1. Events affecting the definition of a Place.
  2. State and Certainty of a Place.
  3. Relative location.

This page is referred to in the following pages

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki
  • Dorothea Reule on 2018-05-22: Edited and updated examples
  • Dorothea Reule on 2019-01-10: Corrected link to repositories, updated Wagarā example, removed outdated sentence