The base URI for the Linked Open Data is http://betamasaheft.eu/ and this is prefixed bm unless where the empty namespace is assumed to be the base url of the current call. Most of the Linked Open Data formats served by Beta maṣāḥǝft are served via RESTXQ modules and therefore are part of the APIs.

All the IIIF data in JSON-LD should be following the International Image Interoperability Framework presentation API 2.0.

All the DTS data in JSON-LD should be following the Distributed Text Services draft.

These two will not be explained here in any further detail.

As this is a very experimental part there is no guarantee we are abiding to all the recommendations available. Any feedback on any of these calls and even on single triples is more then welcome.

VoID

We have several kinds of Linked Open Data produced for different purposes, always form the TEI data. The sets of triples available as response to the following calls, return VoID turtle RDF providing a description of the available resources.

Not for all resources the same Linked Open Data is available, and the VoID nodes will tell you what is available and in which format.

Pattern Example Explanation
http://betamasaheft.eu/api/void http://betamasaheft.eu/api/void

This call produces a VoID turtle set of RDF triples describing the general available linked data access point, the two main access points to the RDF, via SPARQL query returning JSON or XML results and the DTS and IIIF top requests, leading to JSON-LD representations of the collection of texts and images respectively.

http://betamasaheft.eu/api/void/{$id}

This call produces a VoID turtle set of RDF triples describing the linked data available for the selected top level resource in Beta maṣāḥǝft, divided by format of data. There is a void:Dataset with links to

  • the RDF graphs of each resource
  • the RDFa, which corresponds to the main page of the entity where some RDFa is embedded (the triples embedded in the /main html view might be not all those in the RDF+XML)
  • the JSON-LD APIs access point (IIIF and DTS)
  • the Turtle RDF (Pelagios)

Whereas all these resources will have their .xml source file linked and a series of available additional views as appropriate to each, Manuscripts and Works will also have their DTS collection access point and if images are available the IIIF manifest for the manuscript in question.

Manuscripts, Works, Places and Institutions might also have the Turtle Dataset, which contains in the case of Manuscripts and Works the annotations of place names in the case of Places and instutitions is the Pelagios Gazetteer interconnection format which is available following the Pelagios Cookbook instructions.

http://betamasaheft.eu/api/placeNames/void/ http://betamasaheft.eu/api/placeNames/void

This call returns a VoID file with all relevant annotations about place names present in Beta maṣāḥǝft and made available to Pelagios.

This includes some datasets of resources annotated elsewhere, with Hypothes.is and Recogito.

The Gazetteer is available as a static datadump, made at each release of the Beta maṣāḥǝft application and is available in one of the github repositories of the project

RDF

The RDF about Beta maṣāḥǝft resources contains a selection of statements using several common and special vocabularies. it is produced and updated exclusively from the source TEI, with a XSLT transformation

The ontology used for the description of the resources has been compound from existing ontologies and is a work in progress available here. It imports the LAWD ontology and SAWS ontology as well as the ad hoc created Syntaxe du Codex ontology, and it uses properties and classes in addition to those in these ontologies from the SNAP-DRGN ontology, the Pelagios cookbook, Syriaca.org and Pleiades Vocabularies.

Documentation produced from the same file with Protégé export OWLdoc function is published here https://betamasaheft.github.io/RDF/

A graph visualization is available via WebVOWL.

The sparql endpoint has a user interface at http://betamasaheft.eu/sparql

The following table should give you a shorter summary of what to expect in the data which does not replace the details given in the ontology but allows to use the data as the ontology is not complete.

All open annotation statements follow the OA style although superseded.

Class Example Description

all top classes

BAVet1 [RDF] [HTML]

The following properties are always present for main entities.

  • dc:licence
  • dcterms:source
  • foaf:homepage
  • crm:P48_has_preferred_identifier
  • dc:publisher
  • dcterms:isPartOf
  • one dc:language statament for each language used in the document
  • one dc:contributor statament for each contributor to the document (names as string, not URI at the moment)
  • one dcterms:bibliographicCitation for each bibliography entry, containing a string with the Zotero bm: prefixed tag for the entry in the EthioStudies library.
  • assignment to as many classes as dictated by each resource.
  • There might be a dc:temporal
  • At any level there might be generic dc:relation stataments
  • Any number of direct relations using the properties listed in the guidelines, expect for the SNAP-DRGN properties for which SNAP bonds are created.

Manuscript

BNFet32 [RDF] [HTML]

A Manuscript will have additionally

  • one crm:P1_is_identified_by for each main identifier of the resource (e.g. shelfmarks)
  • SdC:hasCertainty
  • bm:hasTotalLeaves
  • a crm:P43_has_dimensionfor each E54_Dimension with
    • crm:P2_has_type
    • crm:P90_has_value
    • crm:P91_has_unit
  • crm:P46_is_composed_of with a pointer to a URI for one of the materials in the Beta maṣāḥǝft vocabulary or in the EAGLE vocabularies
  • crm:P57_has_number_of_parts with the integer indicating the total main content items (things in the msitem class).
  • dcterms:hasPart for each constituent part of the manuscript description (hands, additions, quires, contents, decorations, layout features, etc.

Manuscript content item

BNFet32 msItem 1 [RDF] [HTML]

Each of the manuscript content items is in the msitem class and contains the following statments

  • dcterms:hasPart pointing to the URI of the abstract work entity it contains
  • crm:P57_has_number_of_parts with the integer indicating the total main content items (things in the msitem class). This will be 0 if no subcontent item is present
  • dcterms:hasPart for each constituent part of the manuscript description (hands, additions, quires, contents, decorations, layout features, etc.
  • the placement of the content, with a bm:hasLocus property linking to a Locus node which might have one or more of the following properties:
    • bm:locusFrom
    • bm:locusTo
    • bm:locusTarget
    • bm:locusLine
  • dc:language

Similarly structured are also the additions to the manuscripts.

Manuscript Parts, e.g. Quire

BAVet1 quire 1 [RDF] [HTML]

Each of the manuscript content items is in the msitem class and contains the following statments

  • the placement of the content, with a bm:hasLocus property linking to a Locus node which might have one or more of the following properties:
    • bm:locusFrom
    • bm:locusTo
    • bm:locusTarget
    • bm:locusLine
  • a crm:P43_has_dimensionfor each E54_Dimension with
    • crm:P2_has_type
    • crm:P90_has_value
    • crm:P91_has_unit

Text/Narrative Unit

LIT4252Prayer [RDF] [HTML]

A literary work will additionally have

  • as many dc:title statements as needed for each title
  • as many dc:source statements linking to manunscript or manuscript contents URIs as the declared witnesses of the text

Place/Institution

LOC3577Gondar [RDF] [HTML]

A place record will additionally contain when available

  • coordinates within geo:location/geo:lat and geo:location/geo:long
  • lawd:hasName with lawd:variantForm or lawd:primaryForm

Person

PRS10303Yekunno [RDF] [HTML]

a person RDF representation will additionally contain

  • foaf:name with language code for each recorded name and title
  • If available up to threecrm:P4_has_time_span within the classes for Birth, Death and Floruit.
  • snap:occupation

Beta maṣāḥǝft URIs policies

For an ID http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32 the HTML representation and human readable resource is http://betamasaheft.eu/manuscript/BNFet32/main and this is where a browser will point unless the RDF location is specified http://betamasaheft.eu/rdf/manuscripts/BNFet32.rdf or the ID is requested with header Accept set to application/rdf+xml in which case a graph centered at the requested URI will be produced. This is not the same set of RDF triples as in the file. http://betamasaheft.eu/rdf/manuscripts/BNFet32.rdf is a representation of all the information in the XML file which is present at the HTML page, directly derived from the same XML. The RDF graph centered at http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32 does not contain the triples specific to parts and instead contains statements made in other source XML files.

Because in Beta maṣāḥǝft the HTML views are comprehensive, the URIs of parts of a manuscript for example or annotation will point to the main page where they are presented.

Entity URI

Manuscript

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32

Object types

http://betamasaheft.eu/Codex

Material

http://betamasaheft.eu/material/parchment

Role

http://betamasaheft.eu/role/emperor

Work

http://betamasaheft.eu/LIT4252Prayer

Person

http://betamasaheft.eu/PRS10303Yekunno

Place

http://betamasaheft.eu/LOC3577Gondar

Institution

http://betamasaheft.eu/INS0448HamaraN

Authority-file / Art Theme

http://betamasaheft.eu/AT1053HistoricalScene

http://betamasaheft.eu/angel

manuscript contents

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/msitem/ms_i1

manuscript additions

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/addition/a9

manuscript decorations

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/decoration/d3

manuscript quires

http://betamasaheft.eu/BAVet1/quire/q1

manuscript hands

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/hand/h1

manuscript layout specification

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/layout/layout1

Open Annotations

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/person/annotation/95

http://betamasaheft.eu/BNFet32/place/annotation/1

SNAP Bonds

http://betamasaheft.eu/bond/snap:GrandfatherOf-PRS1854Amdase

Syntaxe du Codex Units and Transformations

http://betamasaheft.eu/BAVcerulli37/UniProd/UniProd1

http://betamasaheft.eu/BAVcerulli37/transformation/tr1

Beta maṣāḥǝft properties

The list of properties actually used in the value of the attribute name for the element relation can be found here, in the guidelines page where the schema values are imported.

Some, like bm:hasRole, or bm:locusLine or bm:hasTotalLeaves are directly exported from the TEI and are thus not in the list of values for relations.

name domain range definition
bm:isAntigraphOf Manuscript Bibliographic Reference (a Zotero tag prefixed bm:)

the relation between a ms and the first printed edition of a text it contains

bm:hasTabot Person Place / Institution

This person has a Tābot at a location.

bm:hasBaptized

Person

Person

This person baptized another one.

bm:baptizedBy

Person

Person

This person was baptized by another one.

bm:isAuthorOfEthiopicTranslation

Person

work

The subject of the relation is author of a translation of a work in another language and there is no digital resource enabling us to document the authorship of this work and the fact that the work as such is a translation of another work.

bm:isGoldenGospelof

Person

work

The relation between a Golden Gospel and its original institution (even if the manuscript is now kept in a different place), to be used in cases where the definition of "Golden Gospel" is explicitly mentioned somewhere in the Gospel or when there is enough evidence that the Gospel is the main material repository of documentary texts related to a certain institution.

bm:hasLexiconEntry

Person / Place

Lexicon Linguae Aethiopicae Online lemma URI

Links a person record directly to the personal name entry for the names of this person in the Lexicon Linguae Aethiopicae Online.

bm:hasLexiconEntry

Person

work

Links a person record directly to the personal name entry for the names of this person in the Lexicon Linguae Aethiopicae Online.

bm:isSuccessorOf

Person

work

The subject of the relation is the successor of...

bm:isPredecessorOf

Person

work

The subject of the relation is the predecessor of...

bm:hasLocus
  • bm:MScomponent
  • sdc:Unit
  • sdc:UniProd
  • bm:Document
  • sdc:Discontinuite

bm:Locus

Provides the placement in the manuscript of one of its units parts described features, might be used to locate a unit defined relationally. If stated, a further relation is needed with one of the properties defining the locus

bm:locusFrom

bm:Locus

foliation reference of the beginning of the placement

for example 1r

bm:locusTo

bm:Locus

foliation reference of the end placement

for example 2v

bm:locusTarget

bm:Locus

foliation reference for a feature or part on one or more non contiguous folia

1r, 14v, 56r

bm:locusLine

bm:Locus

the line in the foliatino reference

for example line 1 in column b of 1r

bm:hasRole Annotation

Role

assignes to an attestation of a name a role

bm:roleName Role

literal value of the role

The annotation will be about a role name assigned to a person, this will be as literal in this property

bm:roleType Role

literal from taxonomy

There is a limited number of types of role to be able to group them

bm:hasTotalLeaves Manuscript

integer number

the total of leaves of the manuscript

bm:husbandOf

Person

Person

husband of

bm:wifeOf

Person

Person

wife of

bm:motherInLawOf

Person

Person

is the mother of the legally conjugated partner

bm:fatherInLawOf

Person

Person

is the father of the legally conjugated partner

bm:sonInLawOf

Person

Person

is the husband of the daughter

bm:daugtherInLawOf

Person

Person

is the wife of the son

bm:sisterInLawOf

Person

Person

is the sister of the legally conjugated partner

bm:brotherInLawOf

Person

Person

is the brother of the legally conjugated partner

bm:ordainedBy

Person

Person

Ordained priest, bishop or monk. Same as Consecrated.

bm:hasOrdained

Person

Person

has ordained to a religious ministery

Beta maṣāḥǝft classes

name definition

bm:Locus

The placement of a unit, feature, part, component of a manuscript with reference to the foliation

bm:Role

The role attested with a personal name.

Syntaxe du Codex

This ontology is based on the book "La Syntaxe du Codex. Essai de codicologie structurale" by Patrick Andrist, Paul Canart and Marilena Maniaci, Turnhout: Brepols 2013. and Andrist, P. 2015. ‘Syntactical Description of Manuscripts’, in A. Bausi, P. G. Borbone, F. Briquel Chatonnet, P. Buzi, J. Gippert, C. Macé, M. Maniaci, Z. Melissakis, L. Parodi, W. Witakowski, and E. Sokolinski, eds, Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies: An Introduction (Hamburg: Tredition, 2015), 511–520.

The registered domain is https://w3id.org/sdc/ontology

The OWL file is stored in a GitHub repository of th Beta maṣāḥǝft organization.

Documentation produced from the same file with Protégé export OWLdoc function is published here https://betamasaheft.github.io/SyntaxeDuCodex/

A graph visualization is available via WebVOWL.