Text Encoding

TEI records are for Text encoding. We record in Manuscripts records the Transcription of the text on the catalogued manuscript, when available, whilst the edited text or the theoretical structure of it should be recorded into the Work Entity. Text is entered in the <body> of a TEI file into a <div type='edition'> . Each text part should be contained into a <div>. <div>s should always be well nested one into the other. These will always take a @subtype with textpart and a @subtype with the desired value. There should always be also a @n identifying for example chapter 3 as well as a @corresp pointing to the appropriate <msPart> or <msItem>

<div type="textpart" subtype="chapter" n="7" corresp="#ms_i3" xml:id="chapter7" xml:lang="gez">
      <locus target="#103"></locus>
      <l n="1">በቀዳማዊ፡ ዐመተ፡ መንግሥቱ፡ ለበልጣሰር፡ ንጉሠ፡ ከለዴዎን፡ ሐለመ፡ ዳንኤል፡ ሕልመ፡ ወርእየ፡
        ርእሶ፡ በውስተ፡ ምስካቡ፡ ወጸሐፈ፡ ሕልሞ። </l>
      <l n="2">አነ፡ ዳንኤል፡ ሐለምኩ፡ ወርእኩ፡ አርባዕተ፡ ነፋሳተ፡
        ነፍኁ፡ ውስተ፡ ባሕር፡ ዐቢይ፡ </l>
      <l n="3">ወዐርጉ፡ አራዊት፡ አርባዕቱ፡ ዐበይት፡ እምባሕር፡ ኅቡረ፡ ወቀዳማዊ፡ </l>
      <l n="4">ከመ፡ አንበሳዊት፡ ወባቲ፡ ክንፈ፡ ወክንፊሃኒ፡ ከመዝ፡ ንስር፡ ወርኢኩዋ፡ ውስከ፡ ተመልኀ፡ ክንፊሃ፡
        ወተንሥአት፡ ወቆመት፡ በእግረ፡ ሰብእ፡ ዲበ፡ ምድር፡ ወልበ፡ ሰብእ፡ ተውህበ፡ ላቲ።</l>

Example 1

Note that after each word there should be a separator or punctuation without space.

<locus> can also be used but will be printed as

(Excerpt from... )
If the text contains biblical verses we will use <l> as in the example above. Also <lb> can be used to mark linebreaks. Be carefull: <ab> should be only in the lowest level div nesting!

Text Diplomatic Transcription features


Text Structure

Use an empty <pb> for each page break. this takes a @n which will have the folio number, e.g. <pb n="41r"> If there are columns, use the element <cb> as in <cb n="a">

<div type="textpart" subtype="folio" n="10">
  <pb n="10r"></pb>
    <cb n="a"></cb>እንዘ፡ ይብል፡ ካልእ፡ ክብሩ፡ ለፀሐይ፡ ወካልእ፡ ክብሩ፡ ለወርኅ፡ ወካልእ፡ ክብሮሙ፡ ለከዋክብት፨ ወኮከብ፡ እምኮከብ፡ ይኄይስ፡ ክብሩ፨ ከማሁኬ፡ ልብሰቶሙ፡ ለቅዱሳን፡ ከመ፡ ኮከብኒ፡ ወከመ፡ ወርኅኒ፡ ቦሙ፡ ልብሰት፨ ወበአምሳለ፡ ፀሐይኒ፡ ቦሙ፡ ዑጻፌ፡ ወለዝንቱሰ፡ ብፁዕ፡ ወቅዱስ፡ ምክሀ፡ ኵልነ፨ ልብሰተ፡ ክብሩ፡ ኢኮነ፡ ከመ፡ ካልአን፡ ኢከመ፡ ፀሐይ፡ ወኢካዕበተ፡ እምፀሐይ፡ ይበርህ፡ ምስብዒተ፡ ስነ፡ አልባሲሁ፡ ዘተኣንመ፡ በእደ፡ ኬንያ፡ ዘአልቦ፡ ዘይትማሰሎ፡ እምነ፡ ኪነውት፨
    <cb n="b"></cb>ብፁዕኬ፡ ዘረከበ፡ ክፍለ፡ ምስለ፡ ብፁዕ፡ <hi rend="rubric">ላሊበላ፡</hi> ወዘተዓፅፈ፡ ልብሰተ፡ ዑጻፌሁ፨ ወዘሰ፡ ኢተመሰሎ፡ በምግባሩ፡ ኢይነሥአ፡ ለክብሩ፨ ወዘሰ፡ ይፈቅድ፡ ይባእ፡ ኀበ፡ ቦአ፡


Example 2

Avoid trying to reproduce the layout of the text in the transcription, this has no use and the image can give much better information.

Hand Shifts

Where a new hand begins insert an element <handShift> with a @new pointing to the ID of the hand in <handNote>.

The following example comes from London, British Library, BL Oriental 719

                  <div type="edition" subtype="book" n="1" corresp="#BLorient719">
                  <cb n="b"></cb>
                 ጌልጌላሁ፡ ዘነበልባል፡ ወሰረገላሁ፡ መርዕድ። ዘያረምማ፡ ለማዕበለ፡ ባሕር፡ ወያዝኅና፡ ለሞገደ። ዘኢየኃልቅ፡ ምስፍናሁ፡ ለትውልደ፡ ትውልድ። ወይትዌዳዕ፡
                 <pb n="3v"></pb>
                 <handShift new="#h2"></handShift>
                 ለዛቲ፡ መጽሐፍ፡ ዘአጸሐፋ፡ አባ፡ አምሐ፡ በምግባረ፡ ሠናይ፡ ፍጹም፡ በእንተ፡ ፍቅሩ፡ ላሊበላ፡ ጻድቅ፡ ዘተሰምየ፡ ገብረ፡ መስቀል፡ ወከመ፡ ይኲኖ፡ መርሃ፡ ለመንግሥት፡ ሰማያት፡ ወእግዚአብሔር፡ ይጽሐፍ፡ ስሞ፡ ምስለ፡ ላሊበላ፡ ወያብኦ፡ ኀበ፡ ቦአ፡ ርስቱ፡ በሣህሉ፡ ወበምሕረቱ፡ አሜን። ዘንተ፡ መጽሐፈ፡ ዋሀበ፡ ለመካን፡ ጎልጎታ። እመቦ፡ ዘሰረቆ፡ ወዘሄደ፡ ወዘተዓገሎ፡ ወዘእውፅኦ፡ እመካኑ፡ ወዘአውሐሶ፡ ለሰብእ። ውጉዘ፡ ይኩን። በአፈ፡ ነቢያት፡ ወሐዋርያት። በአፈ፡ ጻድቃን፡ ወሰማዕት። በአፈ፡ ሚካኤል፡ ወገብርኤል፡ ወበክኵሎሙ፡ ማኅበረ፡ መላእክት። ወበአፈ፡ ጳጳሳት፡ ወሊቃነ፡ ጳጳሳት። ወበአፈ፡ እግዚእትነ፡ ማርያም፡ ጻዋ/ሪ/ተ፡ መላኮት። በአፈ፡ አብ፡ ወወልድ፡ ወመንፈስ፡ ቅዱስ፡ በዝ፡ ዓለም፡ ወበዘ፡ ይመጽእ፡ ዓለም፡ አሜን
                 <add place="bottom">
                 <handShift new="#h8"></handShift>
                 ።=። ሐሑሐ ሀሁሃ መሙሚ ሠሡሢ
                 <pb n="4r"></pb>
                 <add place="top" hand="#h5">ገድለ፡ ላሊበላ፡ ዘቅዱስ፡ መድኃኔ፡ ዓለም፡</add>
                 <handShift new="#h2"></handShift>
                 ምኵናኑ፡ ለዘመደ፡ ዘመድ፨ ጥንተ፡ መዋዕሉ፡ ዘኢይትኋላቍ፡ ወስፍሐ፡ ሀለዎቱ፡ ዘኢይትኄለድ፨ ዘለሐኮ፡ ለአዳም፡ በአርአያሁ፡ ከመ፡ ይትገሃድ፨ ለዘ፡ ከመዝ፡ እግዚእ፡ እንዘ፡ እገኒ፡ ወእሰግድ፡ እነግር፡ ዜና፡ ገድለ፡ ጻማሁ፡ ለብእሲ፡ ብፁዕ፡ ወቅዱስ፡ ክቡር፡ ወርኡስ፡ ስቡሕ፡ ወውዱስ፨ ለባሴ፡ ንጹሕ፡ ዘኢለከፎ፡ ደነስ፨ ጸዋሬ፡ ንዴት፡
                 <cb n="a"></cb>

Example 3

Additions, notes, etc.

For text related additions and marginal notes not reported under <additions>, use <add>:

 <add place="top" hand="#h5">ገድለ፡ ላሊበላ፡ ዘቅዱስ፡ መድኃኔ፡ ዓለም፡</add>

Example 4

The @place has specific values, as the schema will tell you. Please read carefully when choosing.

Always point to the <handDesc> <xml:id>s of each <handNote> in a @hand attribute if you know who added a specific text or letter.

In text

You might have to encode excerpts or text. Please see London, British Library, BL Oriental 719 for an example including some of these markup, or Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodleian Aeth. e. 3.

description (not the schema definition!) tag usage current preview

red inks

<hi rend='rubric'>

text red

later correction

<add> with @hand and @place


text deleted removing material and rewritten

<subst> with children <del rend='erasure'> and <add place='overstrike'>

the top layer of the parchment was removed and the text was written again.


marginal signs



a sign, pointing to the place where the text should be added

<gap reason="illegible" unit="chars" quantity="1">

you can vary unit and quantity. for characters, you will get a plus sign for each missing character


spaces left blank for rubrication, never filled

<space reason="rubrication" unit="chars" quantity="1">

(@quantity @unit left for rubrication)

underlined text

<hi rend="underline">


unclear letters or words



undeciphrable words


text grey

Words or lines skipped in omitted by the editor in transcription

<gap reason='omitted'>


Text omitted from the edition by the editor, for whatever reason (brevity, context, language, etc.)

<gap reason='ellipsis'>


Lost text

<gap reason='lost'>

used to indicate a material loss or a portion of text that is to be hypothesized for material reasons ("it was there!"), but which is lost for loss of the material

[- ca. @quantity @unit -]

text supplied by editor

<supplied reason='lost'>

are used to indicate some portions of text that were restored on the basis of philological and textual considerations

[the supplied text]

text supplied by editor

<supplied reason='omitted'>

are used to indicate some portions of text that were integrated on the basis of philological and textual considerations

<the supplied text>

text supplied by editor

<supplied reason='undefined'>

please do not use this unless really necessary there are other nice options.

[the supplied text (?)]

text supplied by copist in the manuscript

<add place="inline"> with a child <supplied reason="omitted">

see above for supplied and below for add

<the omitted text> with a tooltip giving info on the position


<choice> with children <sic> and <corr>

this will print the corrected version in bold and a tooltip which reports the original version and the author of it clicking on the correct form will toogle the other

written upside down

<hi rend='reversed'>

written in negative writing

<hi rend='negative'>

text erased (scratched with a knife or similar)

<del rend=erasure>

〚deleted text (when still legible)〛

text crossed out with red or black ink, a line or dashes

<del rend="strikethrough">

text marked with dots above or below the line

<del rend="expunctuated">

text deleted or washed out, the material is untouched

<del rend="effaced">

text added above

<add place="above">

all these will also have a popup indicating where the text was added

text added below the line

<add place="below">

text added at the bottom

<add place="bottom">

text added within the body of the text

<add place="inline">

text added interlinear

<add place="interlinear">

text added at the left

<add place="left">

text added in the margin

<add place="margin">

text added mixed

<add place="mixed">

text added on the opposite, i.e. facing, page

<add place="opposite">

text added on the other side of the leaf

<add place="overleaf">

text written over previously deleted text

<add place="overstrike">

text added at the right

<add place="right">

text added at the top

<add place="top">

text added at an unspecified place

<add place="unspecified">

TEI is made for this and there are a number of other things which can be much better and more precisely encoded.

When the record does not yet contain any text transcription, but information about some of the above listed phenomena is available, this should be stated temporarily in a note with a commentary for future changes in the respective msItem:

                 <note>This prayer is written in negative writing. </note> 

Example 5

Note, however, the different usage for the information about rubrication.

This page is referred to in the following pages

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki