This record contains information about a single individual, including names, occupation, nationality, birth, death, residence, etc.

It can be expanded with much more information, following TEI guidelines for person

<text> <body> <listPerson> <person sex="1"> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">አበከራዙን</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" type="normalized" corresp="#n1">ʾAbakarazun</persName> <persName type="alt"> <roleName type="title">ʾabbā</roleName> ʾAbakǝrazun</persName> <nationality>Christian Ethiopia</nationality> <faith>EOTC</faith> <occupation type="ecclesiastic">monk</occupation> <death>1471</death> <floruit notBefore="1390" notAfter="1471">1390-1471</floruit> <residence> <placeName ref="LOC2331DabraQ">Dabra Qaʿat</placeName> </residence> </person> <listRelation> <relation name="bm:fatherOf" active="PRS1009Abakaraz" passive="PRS1000Abakaraz PRS1020Abakaraz"></relation> <relation name="bm:husbandOf" active="PRS1009Abakaraz" passive="PRS1030Abakaraz"> <desc>It is always a nice idea to provide a description of this relations with a sentence or two. </desc> </relation> </listRelation> </listPerson> </body> </text>

We usually assign n1 to the standard name in Fidal, and point with @corresp to that for transliteration and translations of the same.

Other <persName>s will have other IDs, which can be anything which is a valid @xml:id but better if the are in the format 'n\d+'.

If you want to add a typical spelling which is used to search a name, like in, the safest place to add it so that it is indexed without affecting the actual content of the entry is in a new teiHeader//titleStmt/title

You can also use @type with value main to further specify what the label name of the person should be.

<persName xml:id="n1" xml:lang="gez">ማርያም፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n1" type="normalized">Māryām</persName> <persName xml:lang="en" corresp="#n1" type="main">Mary</persName>

This is of course redundant when the <persName> you assign this attribute would be already the one picked by the titles rules, which are in order of priority:

  1. <persName[@type = 'main']>
  2. <persName[@corresp = '#n1'][@xml:lang = 'gez']>
  3. <persName[@corresp = '#n1'][@xml:lang = 'en'][@type = 'normalized']>
  4. <persName[@corresp = '#n1'][@xml:lang[not(. = 'en')][not(. = 'gez')]]>
  5. <persName[1]>

Changing the IDs to arrive at a certain visualization is deceptory as in the following example, where

<person sex="1" sameAs="Q671055"> <persName xml:lang="en" xml:id="n1" type="main">Cyprian of Antioch</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n2">ቆጵርያኖስ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n2" type="normalized">Qoṗrǝyānos</persName> </person>

The correct way to do this is

<person sex="1" sameAs="Q671055"> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">ቆጵርያኖስ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n1" type="normalized">Qoṗrǝyānos</persName> <persName xml:lang="en" xml:id="n2" type="main">Cyprian of Antioch</persName> </person>

which will print in the application 'Cyprian of Antioch' instead of the usual first candidate 'Qoṗrǝyānos', the normalized transcription of the name in Fidal.

Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish between the birth name and given name. The name given at the time of birth, is encoded as the a <persName> with an attribute @type with value birth. However, there are exceptions where a person has been forced to change his or her birth name to another name for various reasons. In this case a new name should be given to a person with @type=given. In our person records there are persons who have both a birth name and a given name. Here a typical example is a woman named Aster Gānnoo, who was an Oromo pioneer who worked with Onesimos Nasib on the translation of the Bible into Oromo. Her Oromo name, which she had got from her parents, was called ሰልባን፡ but later she changed her name to አስቴር፡. In this case, we mark ሰልባን፡ as birth name where as አስቴር፡ as a given name. .

<persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1" type="given">አስቴር፡ ጋኖ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n1" type="normalized">ʾAster Gānnoo</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n2" type="given">አስቴር፡ ገኖ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n2" type="normalized">ʾAster Gano</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n3" type="birth">ሰልባን፡ ጋኖ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n3" type="normalized">Salbāān Gānnoo</persName>

Surname and Forename

Use <surname> and <forename> only for European names. For other names you can use <addName> <genName> (e.g. for the ordinal in the name of a king) or simply <name>. To <persName> you can give a @type

For international saints and biblical figures, the English name should be used. "Saint" as a title should be spelled with a capital and can be abbreviated St (without dot)


If the name contains a role, please tag it as <roleName> and add a @type.

<persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1" type="birth">ሚናስ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n1" type="normalized">Minās</persName> <persName> <roleName type="title">ʾaṣe</roleName> </persName>

Also the encoding in the first example above is correct, althoug this second method has been preferred.

Please note that <roleName> always has to be encoded within <persName> for indexing and consistency purposes.


For Saints you might wish to record the commemoration dates. Please follow this example

<note type="commemoration"> <date type="diesNatalis">5 Maskaram</date> </note>


Epithet should be recorded as <addName type='epithet'> and should have their @xml:id with a chosen value. Assuming the @xml:id is in this case "SaviourOfTheWorld" ID to be copied there will be the like 'PRS5684JesusCh#SaviourOfTheWorld'

<persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">ኢየሱስ፡ ክርስቶስ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" type="normalized" corresp="#n1">ʾIyasus Krǝstos</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" type="alt" xml:id="n2">ክርስቶስ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#n2">Krǝstos</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="MadhaneAlam"> <addName type="epithet">መድኃኔ፡ ዓለም</addName> </persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" corresp="#MadhaneAlam">Madḫāne ʿĀlam</persName>

Unknown or incomplete names

If the name of a person is only partly attested in a manuscript, the <persName> in the person record should only contain the attested part of the name or be normalized. It should not be marked up in any way. Mark up should instead be carried out in the text of the manuscript which contains this name. Note that it is not necessary to create a record if there is not enough information available on the person to ensure the record's correctness.

Information about this person

<occupation> can take @type attribute.

You can also use multiple <occupation> elements and add @from and @to to assign the occupation to a period. Also only one of the two is OK. The use of <occupation type="academic"> should be restricted to scholars involved in the study of Ethiopian manuscripts. All persons whose records contain <occupation type="academic"> are displayed on the homepage. Try to limit the use of <occupation> to actual occupations. If you are unsure about whether some information on a person should be added in <occupation>, open a new issue. "Angel", for instance, is not an occupation, but can be added to the record as a keyword:

<textClass> <keywords> <term key="angel"></term> </keywords> </textClass>

Also for <faith> you will find a list of values for @type .


Use @sameAs inside <person> to declare the authority file. Prefer Wikidata if an item is present, otherways use VIAF.

<person sex="1" sameAs="Q302"> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">ኢየሱስ፡ ክርስቶስ፡</persName> </person>


If you want to give extremes of the date also in @when @notBefore @notAfter please follow TEI guidelines for date. When the date is given as a value and no further information is provided, it is not necessary to repeat the dating in the content of the element: <death when="1636" evidence="internal"> is sufficient. However, if the element contains text, the value will not be visualized. The date should therefore be included explicitly in the content as in this example from Yamāna Krǝstos:

<floruit when="1605" evidence="internal"> He was an important military and political figure, who was involved in several episodes related to <persName ref="PRS9038Susenyos"></persName> during the latter's years as šǝftā and pretender to the throne. He refused to side with his brother <persName ref="PRS9038Susenyos"> <roleName type="title">ʾaṣe</roleName> Susǝnyos </persName> in a struggle against the young <persName ref="PRS10198Yaeqob"> <roleName type="title">ʾaṣe</roleName> Yāʿqob </persName> in <date>1605</date> . </floruit>


Each relationship should be listed separately in a <relation>, even if the same relationship exists between this and more than one other entity. @name contains the name of the relation. Allowed values are those in the SNAP Ontology. you can filter them out in oXygen typing snap: in the value list.

@active should contain the @xml:id of the current person. @passive should contain the IDs of the related persons, separated by a space

As usual all elements can take a @xml:lang.

The relationship between a work and its subject is expressed in the person record:

<relation name="ecrm:P129i_is_subject_of" active="PRS4585Georgeo" passive="LIT1455GadlaG"></relation>


For distinct groups of people as an abstract notion (so a "specific group of monks", but not "friary" or "family") we use a record in TEI which is the same as that for a person, but contains a <personGrp> in the listPerson, with the persNames of the group. Relations should then be used to provide evidence for members of this group, which can be fixed or flexible. The members of the group can be indicated in the group record by using snap:Group, however, it is sufficient to include the relation saws:isMemberOf in each individual person record of members of the group.

<listPerson> <personGrp> <persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">ደቂቀ፡ ኤዎስጣቴዎስ፡</persName> <persName xml:lang="gez" type="normalized" corresp="#n1">daqiqa ʾEwosṭātewos</persName> <persName xml:lang="en">ʾEwosṭāteans</persName> <floruit notBefore="1300" precision="medium">The ʾEwostāteans are a religious movement and network of monasteries going back to <persName ref="PRS3932Ewostate"></persName>. They originated in Eastern <placeName ref="LOC6569Tegray"></placeName> and were widely involved in the Christianization of the Northern Ethiopian provinces in the <date>14th and 15th century</date>. </floruit> </personGrp> </listPerson> <relation name="saws:isMemberOf" active="PRS11228Yaeqob" passive="PRS11207Ewostateans"></relation>

Members of the group should have a relation saws:isMemberOf linking to the group record. This is valid for example for monks belonging to the orders of Takla Hāymānot, Sāmuʾel of Waldəbbā or ʾEwosṭātewos. In a similar way, various bodies of military regiments are also be represented as

<persName xml:lang="gez" xml:id="n1">ቊርባን፡</persName>


<listPerson> <personGrp> <occupation type="military">guarding the king</occupation> <floruit notBefore="1563" notAfter="1607">They were a distinct household troops of King <persName ref="Śarḍa Dǝngǝl">Śarḍa Dǝngǝl</persName>.</floruit> </personGrp> <listRelation> <relation name="lawd:hasAttestation" active="PRS11801Qurban" passive="LIT3951ChronSusenyos"></relation> </listRelation> </listPerson>

This page is referred to in the following pages

Revisions of this page

  • Pietro Maria Liuzzo on 2018-04-30: first version of guidelines from Wiki
  • Dorothea Reule on 2018-05-23: Added title priorities